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Miscellaneous UNIX System Commands


Command		Selected Arguments	Synopsis

date		[yymmddhhmm[ss]]	gives current time/date [sets
					current time/date]

who		[ami]			lists login names of users currently
					logged into the cpu 
					[states who is logged into the cpu]

passwd					set or change current password

logout		none			logs user off the system

man		command-name		gives a description of command-name 
					including its arguments and options

ps		[-a],[-u],[-l],[-x]	lists jobs currently being executed by 
					the cpu

kill		[-9], pid		kills job with process identification 
					number pid, the -9 option kills it 
					very dead

Berkeley UNIX Conventions and Commands

~ means home directory, ~user-name means user-name's home directory

Command		Selected Arguments	Synopsis

!!					Repeat previous command

!-n					Repeat n-th previous command

history					lists previous commands (up to 40 is 
					the default)

!n					Repeat n-th command in the history list

more		[+n]  file		read a file a screen at a time 
					[starting at line n]

apropos	character-string		lists manual entries relevant to 
					character-string

whatis		command...		lists title lines from manual entries 
					of each command

whereis		command or filename	searches for the source, manual entry 
					and binary of the specified command 
					or filename

Filesystem Commands


Command		Selected Arguments	Synopsis 

rm		[-f],[-r],[-i] file...	removes files; options are:
					-f  -  just do it, don't talk to me
					-r  - recursive: remove every file 			
						below this level.
					-i  - interactive

rmdir		directory-name		removes an empty directory

mkdir		directory-name		creates a new directory

touch		file-name		creates an empty file named file-name

pwd		none			prints current working directory

ls		[-a],[-l] 		list contents of current working 
					directory, options are:
					-a  - list all file/subdirectories
					-l  - give long listing

cd		[directory-name]	change working directory - if no path 
					is given, we go home

cat		file..			similar to more, but output can be 
					directed

tail		[+n],[-n], file		read the end of the file, [beginning 
					at line n if +], [n lines from the 
					end if -]

file		file..			gives type of file/directory
 
cp		source-file target-file	copy source-file into target-file

mv		source-file target-file	move source-file into target-file,
					source-file is deleted

chmod		mode file...		changes access code for given file(s)

Wild Card Characters

	*- matches any string

	?- matches any single character

	[ - ]- matches characters in a specified range	

vi Reference

Warning: some vi versions don't support the more esoteric features
described in this document.

vi Reference Table of Contents

  • Contributions
  • Legenda
  • Move commands
  • Searching
  • Undoing changes
  • Appending text
  • Deleting text
  • Changing text
  • Substitute replacement patterns
  • Remembering text (yanking)
  • Commands while in append|change mode
  • Writing, editing other files, and quitting vi
  • Display commands
  • Mapping and abbreviation
  • Switch and shell commands
  • vi startup
  • The most important options

  • default values          : 1
    <*>                     : `*' must not be taken literally
    [*]                     : `*' is optional
    ^X                      : <ctrl>X
    <sp>                    : space
    <cr>                    : carriage return
    <lf>                    : linefeed
    <ht>                    : horizontal tab
    <esc>                   : escape
    <erase>                 : your erase character
    <kill>                  : your kill character
    <intr>                  : your interrupt character
    <a-z>                   : an element in the range
    N                       : number (`*' = allowed, `-' = not appropriate)
    CHAR                    : char unequal to <ht>|<sp>
    WORD                    : word followed by <ht>|<sp>|<lf>
    

    move commands

     N | Command            | Meaning
    ---+--------------------+-----------------------------------------------
     * | h | ^H | <erase>   | <*> chars to the left.
     * | j | <lf> | ^N      | <*> lines downward.
     * | l | <sp>           | <*> chars to the right.
     * | k | ^P             | <*> lines upward.
     * | $                  | To the end of line <*> from the cursor.
     - | ^                  | To the first CHAR of the line.
     * | _                  | To the first CHAR <*> - 1 lines lower.
     * | -                  | To the first CHAR <*> lines higher.
     * | + | <cr>           | To the first CHAR <*> lines lower.
     - | 0                  | To the first char of the line.
     * | |                  | To column <*> (<ht>: only to the endpoint).
     * | f<char>            | <*> <char>s to the right (find).
     * | t<char>            | Till before <*> <char>s to the right.
     * | F<char>            | <*> <char>s to the left.
     * | T<char>            | Till after <*> <char>s to the left.
     * | ;                  | Repeat latest `f'|`t'|`F'|`T' <*> times.
     * | ,                  | Idem in opposite direction.
     * | w                  | <*> words forward.
     * | W                  | <*> WORDS forward.
     * | b                  | <*> words backward.
     * | B                  | <*> WORDS backward.
     * | e                  | To the end of word <*> forward.
     * | E                  | To the end of WORD <*> forward.
     * | G                  | Go to line <*> (default EOF).
     * | H                  | To line <*> from top of the screen (home).
     * | L                  | To line <*> from bottom of the screen (last).
     - | M                  | To the middle line of the screen.
     * | )                  | <*> sentences forward.
     * | (                  | <*> sentences backward.
     * | }                  | <*> paragraphs forward.
     * | {                  | <*> paragraphs backward.
     - | ]]                 | To the next section (default EOF).
     - | [[                 | To the previous section (default begin of file).
     - | `<a-z>             | To the mark.
     - | '<a-z>             | To the first CHAR of the line with the mark.
     - | ``                 | To the cursor position before the latest absolute
                            |   jump (of which are examples `/' and `G').
     - | ''                 | To the first CHAR of the line on which the cursor
                            |   was placed before the latest absolute jump.
     - | /<string>          | To the next occurrence of <string>.
     - | ?<string>          | To the previous occurrence of <string>.
     - | n                  | Repeat latest `/'|`?' (next).
     - | N                  | Idem in opposite direction.
     - | %                  | Find the next bracket and go to its match
                            |   (also with `{'|`}' and `['|`]').
    

    searching (see above)

    :ta <name>              | Search in the tags file[s] where <name> is
                            |   defined (file, line), and go to it.
    ^]                      | Use the name under the cursor in a `:ta' command.
    ^T                      | Pop the previous tag off the tagstack and return
                            |   to its position.
    :[x,y]g/<string>/<cmd>  | Search globally [from line x to y] for <string>
                            |   and execute the `ex' <cmd> on each occurrence.
    :[x,y]v/<string>/<cmd>  | Execute <cmd> on the lines that don't match.
    

    undoing changes

    u                       | Undo the latest change.
    U                       | Undo all changes on a line, while not having
                            |   moved off it (unfortunately).
    :q!                     | Quit vi without writing.
    :e!                     | Re-edit a messed-up file.
    

    appending text (end with <esc>)

     * | a                  | <*> times after the cursor.
     * | A                  | <*> times at the end of line.
     * | i                  | <*> times before the cursor (insert).
     * | I                  | <*> times before the first CHAR of the line
     * | o                  | On a new line below the current (open).
                            |   The count is only useful on a slow terminal.
     * | O                  | On a new line above the current.
                            |   The count is only useful on a slow terminal.
     * | ><move>            | Shift the lines described by <*><move> one
                            |   shiftwidth to the right.
     * | >>                 | Shift <*> lines one shiftwidth to the right.
     * | ["<a-zA-Z1-9>]p    | Put the contents of the (default undo) buffer
                            |   <*> times after the cursor.
                            |   A buffer containing lines is put only once,
                            |   below the current line.
     * | ["<a-zA-Z1-9>]P    | Put the contents of the (default undo) buffer
                            |   <*> times before the cursor.
                            |   A buffer containing lines is put only once,
                            |   above the current line.
     * | .                  | Repeat previous command <*> times.  If the last
                            |   command before a `.' command references a
                            |   numbered buffer, the buffer number is
                            |   incremented first (and the count is ignored):
                            |
                            |   "1pu.u.u.u.u      - `walk through' buffers 1
                            |                       through 5
                            |   "1P....           - restore them
    

    deleting text

    Everything deleted can be stored into a buffer. This is achieved by
    putting a `"' and a letter <a-z> before the delete command. The
    deleted text will be in the buffer with the used letter. If <A-Z>
    is used as buffer name, the conjugate buffer <a-z> will be augmented
    instead of overwritten with the text. The undo buffer always
    contains the latest change. Buffers <1-9> contain the latest 9
    LINE deletions (`"1' is most recent).
    
     * | x                  | Delete <*> chars under and after the cursor.
     * | X                  | <*> chars before the cursor.
     * | d<move>            | From begin to endpoint of <*><move>.
     * | dd                 | <*> lines.
     - | D                  | The rest of the line.
     * | <<move>            | Shift the lines described by <*><move> one
                            |   shiftwidth to the left.
     * | <<                 | Shift <*> lines one shiftwidth to the left.
     * | .                  | Repeat latest command <*> times.
    

    changing text (end with <esc>)

     * | r<char>            | Replace <*> chars by <char> - no <esc>.
     * | R                  | Overwrite the rest of the line,
                            |   appending change <*> - 1 times.
     * | s                  | Substitute <*> chars.
     * | S                  | <*> lines.
     * | c<move>            | Change from begin to endpoint of <*><move>.
     * | cc                 | <*> lines.
     * | C                  | The rest of the line and <*> - 1 next lines.
     * | =<move>            | If the option `lisp' is set, this command
                            |   will realign the lines described by <*><move>
                            |   as though they had been typed with the option
                            |   `ai' set too.
     - | ~                  | Switch lower and upper cases
                            |   (should be an operator, like `c').
     * | J                  | Join <*> lines (default 2).
     * | .                  | Repeat latest command <*> times (`J' only once).
     - | &                  | Repeat latest `ex' substitute command, e.g.
                            |   `:s/wrong/good'.
     - | :[x,y]s/<p>/<r>/<f>| Substitute (on lines x through y) the pattern <p>
                            |   (default the last pattern) with <r>.  Useful
                            |   flags <f> are `g' for `global' (i.e. change
                            |   every non-overlapping occurrence of <p>) and
                            |   `c' for `confirm' (type `y' to confirm a
                            |   particular substitution, else <cr>).  Instead
                            |   of `/' any punctuation CHAR unequal to <lf>
                            |   can be used as delimiter.
    

    substitute replacement patterns

    The basic meta-characters for the replacement pattern are `&' and `~';
    these are given as `\&' and `\~' when nomagic is set.  Each instance
    of `&' is replaced by the characters which the regular expression
    matched.  The meta-character `~' stands, in the replacement
    pattern, for the defining text of the previous replacement
    pattern.  Other meta-sequences possible in the replacement pattern
    are always introduced by the escaping character `\'.  The sequence
    `\n' (with `n' in [1-9]) is replaced by the text matched by the
    n-th regular subexpression enclosed between `\(' and `\)'.  The
    sequences `\u' and `\l' cause the immediately following character
    in the replacement to be converted to upper- or lower-case
    respectively if this character is a letter.  The sequences `\U' and
    `\L' turn such conversion on, either until `\E' or `\e' is
    encountered, or until the end of the replacement pattern.
    

    remembering text (yanking)

    With yank commands you can put `"<a-zA-Z>' before the command, just as
    with delete commands.  Otherwise you only copy to the undo buffer.
    The use of buffers <a-z> is THE way of copying text to another file;
    see the `:e <file>' command.
    
    * | y<move>            | Yank from begin to endpoint of <*><move>.
     * | yy                 | <*> lines.
     * | Y                  | Idem (should be equivalent to `y$' though).
     - | m<a-z>             | Mark the cursor position with a letter.
    

    commands while in append|change mode

    ^@                      | If typed as the first character of the
                            |   insertion, it is replaced with the previous
                            |   text inserted (max. 128 chars), after which
                            |   the insertion is terminated.
    ^V                      | Deprive the next char of its special meaning
                            |   (e.g. <esc>).
    ^D                      | One shiftwidth to the left, but only if
                            |   nothing else has been typed on the line.
    0^D                     | Remove all indentation on the current line
                            |   (there must be no other chars on the line).
    ^^D                     | Idem, but it is restored on the next line.
    ^T                      | One shiftwidth to the right, but only if
                            |   nothing else has been typed on the line.
    ^H | <erase>            | One char back.
    ^W                      | One word back.
    <kill>                  | Back to the begin of the change on the
                            |   current line.
    <intr>                  | Like <esc> (but you get a beep as well). 
    

    writing, editing other files, and quitting vi

    In `:' `ex' commands - if not the first CHAR on the line - `%' denotes
    the current file, `#' is a synonym for the alternate file (which
    normally is the previous file).  As first CHAR on the line `%' is a
    shorthand for `1,$'.  Marks can be used for line numbers too: '<a-z>.
    In the `:w'|`:f'|`:cd'|`:e'|`:n' commands shell meta-characters can be
    used.
    
    :q                      | Quit vi, unless the buffer has been changed.
    :q!                     | Quit vi without writing.
    ^Z                      | Suspend vi.
    :w                      | Write the file.
    :w <name>               | Write to the file <name>.
    :w >> <name>            | Append the buffer to the file <name>.
    :w! <name>              | Overwrite the file <name>.
    :x,y w <name>           | Write lines x through y to the file <name>.
    :wq                     | Write the file and quit vi; some versions quit
                            |   even if the write was unsuccessful!
                            |   Use `ZZ' instead.
    ZZ                      | Write if the buffer has been changed, and
                            |   quit vi.  If you have invoked vi with the `-r'
                            |   option, you'd better write the file
                            |   explicitly (`w' or `w!'), or quit the
                            |   editor explicitly (`q!') if you don't want
                            |   to overwrite the file - some versions of vi
                            |   don't handle the `recover' option very well.
    :x [<file>]             | Idem [but write to <file>].
    :x! [<file>]            | `:w![<file>]' and `:q'.
    :pre                    | Preserve the file - the buffer is saved as if
                            |   the system had just crashed; for emergencies,
                            |   when a `:w' command has failed and you don't
                            |   know how to save your work (see vi -r).
    :f <name>               | Set the current filename to <name>.
    :cd [<dir>]             | Set the working directory to <dir>
                            |   (default home directory).
    :cd! [<dir>]            | Idem, but don't save changes.
    :e [+<cmd>] <file>      | Edit another file without quitting vi - the
                            |   buffers are not changed (except the undo
                            |   buffer), so text can be copied from one file to
                            |   another this way.  [Execute the `ex' command
                            |   <cmd> (default `$') when the new file has been
                            |   read into the buffer.]  <cmd> must contain no
                            |   <sp> or <ht>.  See vi startup.
    :e! [+<cmd>] <file>     | Idem, without writing the current buffer.
    ^^                      | Edit the alternate (normally the previous) file.
    :rew                    | Rewind the argument list, edit the first file.
    :rew!                   | Idem, without writing the current buffer.
    :n [+<cmd>] [<files>]   | Edit next file or specify a new argument list.
    :n! [+<cmd>] [<files>]  | Idem, without writing the current buffer.
    :args                   | Give the argument list, with the current file
                            |   between `[' and `]'.
    

    display commands

    ^G                      | Give file name, status, current line number
                            |   and relative position.
    ^L                      | Refresh the screen (sometimes `^P' or `^R').
    ^R                      | Sometimes vi replaces a deleted line by a `@',
                            |   to be deleted by `^R' (see option redraw).
    [*]^E                   | Expose <*> more lines at bottom, cursor
                            |   stays put (if possible).
    [*]^Y                   | Expose <*> more lines at top, cursor
                            |   stays put (if possible).
    [*]^D                   | Scroll <*> lines downward
                            |   (default the number of the previous scroll;
                            |   initialization: half a page).
    [*]^U                   | Scroll <*> lines upward
                            |   (default the number of the previous scroll;
                            |   initialization: half a page).
    [*]^F                   | <*> pages forward.
    [*]^B                   | <*> pages backward (in older versions `^B' only
                            |   works without count).
    
    If in the next commands the field <wi> is present, the windowsize
    will change to <wi>. The window will always be displayed at the
    bottom of the screen.
    
    [*]z[wi]<cr>            | Put line <*> at the top of the window
                            |   (default the current line).
    [*]z[wi]+               | Put line <*> at the top of the window
                            |   (default the first line of the next page).
    [*]z[wi]-               | Put line <*> at the bottom of the window
                            |   (default the current line).
    [*]z[wi]^               | Put line <*> at the bottom of the window
                            |   (default the last line of the previous page).
    [*]z[wi].               | Put line <*> in the centre of the window
                            |   (default the current line).
    

    mapping and abbreviation

    When mapping take a look at the options `to' and `remap' (below).
    
    :map <string> <seq>     | <string> is interpreted as <seq>, e.g.
                            |   `:map ^C :!cc %^V<cr>' to invoke `cc' (the C
                            |   compiler) from within the editor
                            |   (vi replaces `%' with the current file name).
    :map                    | Show all mappings.
    :unmap <string>         | Deprive <string> of its mapping.  When vi
                            |   complains about non-mapped macros (whereas no
                            |   typos have been made), first do something like
                            |   `:map <string> Z', followed by
                            |   `:unmap <string>' (`Z' must not be a macro
                            |   itself), or switch to `ex' mode first with `Q'.
    :map! <string> <seq>    | Mapping in append mode, e.g.
                            |   `:map! \be begin^V<cr>end;^V<esc>O<ht>'.
                            |   When in append mode <string> is preceded by
                            |   `^V', no mapping is done.
    :map!                   | Show all append mode mappings.
    :unmap! <string>        | Deprive <string> of its mapping (see `:unmap').
    :ab <string> <seq>      | Whenever in append mode <string> is preceded and
                            |   followed by a breakpoint (e.g. <sp> or `,'), it
                            |   is interpreted as <seq>, e.g.
                            |   `:ab ^P procedure'.  A `^V' immediately
                            |   following <string> inhibits expansion.
    :ab                     | Show all abbreviations.
    :unab <string>          | Do not consider <string> an abbreviation
                            |   anymore (see `:unmap').
    @<a-z>                  | Consider the contents of the named register a
                            |   command, e.g.:
                            |       o0^D:s/wrong/good/<esc>"zdd
                            |   Explanation:
                            |       o              - open a new line
                            |       0^D            - remove indentation
                            |       :s/wrong/good/ - this input text is an
                            |                        `ex' substitute command
                            |       <esc>          - finish the input
                            |       "zdd           - delete the line just
                            |                        created into register `z'
                            |   Now you can type `@z' to replace `wrong'
                            |   with `good' on the current line.
    @@                      | Repeat last register command.
    

    switch and shell commands

    Q | ^\ | <intr><intr>   | Switch from vi to `ex'.
    :                       | An `ex' command can be given.
    :vi                     | Switch from `ex' to vi.
    :sh                     | Execute a subshell, back to vi by `^D'.
    :[x,y]!<cmd>            | Execute a shell <cmd> [on lines x through y;
                            |   these lines will serve as input for <cmd> and
                            |   will be replaced by its standard output].
    :[x,y]!! [<args>]       | Repeat last shell command [and append <args>].
    :[x,y]!<cmd> ! [<args>] | Use the previous command (the second `!') in a
                            |   new command.
    [*]!<move><cmd>         | The shell executes <cmd>, with as standard
                            |   input the lines described by <*><move>,
                            |   next the standard output replaces those lines
                            |   (think of `cb', `sort', `nroff', etc.).
    [*]!<move>!<args>       | Append <args> to the last <cmd> and execute it,
                            |   using the lines described by the current
                            |   <*><move>.
    [*]!!<cmd>              | Give <*> lines as standard input to the
                            |   shell <cmd>, next let the standard output
                            |   replace those lines.
    [*]!!! [<args>]         | Use the previous <cmd> [and append <args> to it].
    :x,y w !<cmd>           | Let lines x to y be standard input for <cmd>
                            |   (notice the <sp> between the `w' and the `!').
    :r!<cmd>                | Put the output of <cmd> onto a new line.
    :r <name>               | Read the file <name> into the buffer.
    

    vi startup

    vi [<files>]            | Edit the files, start with the first page of
                            |   the first file.
    
    The editor can be initialized by the shell variable `EXINIT', which
    looks like:
    
            EXINIT='<cmd>|<cmd>|...'
            <cmd>: set options
                   map ...
                   ab ...
            export EXINIT (in the Bourne shell)
    
    However, the list of initializations can also be put into a file.
    If this file is located in your home directory, and is named `.exrc'
    AND the variable `EXINIT' is NOT set, the list will be executed
    automatically at startup time. However, vi will always execute the
    contents of a `.exrc' in the current directory, if you own the file.
    Else you have to give the execute (`source') command yourself:
    
            :so file
    
    In a `.exrc' file a comment is introduced with a double quote character:
    the rest of the line is ignored.  Exception: if the last command on the
    line is a `map[!]' or `ab' command or a shell escape, a trailing comment
    is not recognized, but considered part of the command.
    
    On-line initializations can be given with `vi +<cmd> file', e.g.:
    
    vi +x file              | The cursor will immediately jump to line x
                            |   (default last line).
    vi +/<string> file      | Jump to the first occurrence of <string>.
    
    You can start at a particular tag with:
    
    vi -t <tag>             | Start in the right file in the right place.
    
    Sometimes (e.g. if the system crashed while you were editing) it is
    possible to recover files lost in the editor by `vi -r file'.  A plain
    `vi -r' command shows the files you can recover.
    If you just want to view a file by using vi, and you want to avoid any
    change, instead of vi you can use the `view' or `vi -R' command:
    the option `readonly' will be set automatically (with `:w!' you can
    override this option).
    

    the most important options

    ai                      | autoindent - In append mode after a <cr> the
                            |   cursor will move directly below the first
                            |   CHAR on the previous line.  However, if the
                            |   option `lisp' is set, the cursor will align
                            |   at the first argument to the last open list.
    aw                      | autowrite - Write at every shell escape
                            |   (useful when compiling from within vi).
    dir=<string>            | directory - The directory for vi to make
                            |   temporary files (default `/tmp').
    eb                      | errorbells - Beeps when you goof
                            |   (not on every terminal).
    ic                      | ignorecase - No distinction between upper and
                            |   lower cases when searching.
    lisp                    | Redefine the following commands:
                            |   `(', `)'   - move backward (forward) over
                            |                S-expressions
                            |   `{', `}'   - idem, but don't stop at atoms
                            |   `[[', `]]' - go to previous (next) line
                            |                beginning with a `('
                            |   See option `ai'.
    list                    | <lf> is shown as `$', <ht> as `^I'.
    magic                   | If this option is set (default), the chars `.',
                            |   `[' and `*' have special meanings within search
                            |   and `ex' substitute commands.  To deprive such
                            |   a char of its special function it must be
                            |   preceded by a `\'.  If the option is turned off
                            |   it's just the other way around.  Meta-chars:
                            |   ^<string>    - <string> must begin the line
                            |   <string>$    - <string> must end the line
                            |   .            - matches any char
                            |   [a-z]        - matches any char in the range
                            |   [^a-z]       - any char not in the range
                            |   [<string>]   - matches any char in <string>
                            |   [^<string>]  - any char not in <string>
                            |   <char>*      - 0 or more <char>s
                            |   \<<string>   - <string> must begin a word
                            |   <string>\>   - <string> must end a word
    modeline                | When you read an existing file into the buffer,
                            |   and this option is set, the first and last 5
                            |   lines are checked for editing commands in the
                            |   following form:
                            |
                            |     <sp>vi:set options|map ...|ab ...|!...:
                            |
                            |   Instead of <sp> a <ht> can be used, instead of
                            |   `vi' there can be `ex'.  Warning: this option
                            |   could have nasty results if you edit a file
                            |   containing `strange' modelines.
    nu                      | number - Numbers before the lines.
    para=<string>           | paragraphs - Every pair of chars in <string> is
                            |   considered a paragraph delimiter nroff macro
                            |   (for `{' and `}').  A <sp> preceded by a `\'
                            |   indicates the previous char is a single letter
                            |   macro.  `:set para=P\ bp' introduces `.P' and
                            |   `.bp' as paragraph delimiters.  Empty lines and
                            |   section boundaries are paragraph boundaries
                            |   too.
    redraw                  | The screen remains up to date.
    remap                   | If on (default), macros are repeatedly
                            |   expanded until they are unchanged.
                            |   Example: if `o' is mapped to `A', and `A'
                            |   is mapped to `I', then `o' will map to `I'
                            |   if `remap' is set, else it will map to `A'.
    report=<*>              | Vi reports whenever e.g. a delete
                            |   or yank command affects <*> or more lines.
    ro                      | readonly - The file is not to be changed.
                            |   However, `:w!' will override this option.
    sect=<string>           | sections - Gives the section delimiters (for `[['
                            |   and `]]'); see option `para'. A `{' beginning a
                            |   line also starts a section (as in C functions).
    sh=<string>             | shell - The program to be used for shell escapes
                            |   (default `$SHELL' (default `/bin/sh')).
    sw=<*>                  | shiftwidth - Gives the shiftwidth (default 8
                            |   positions).
    sm                      | showmatch - Whenever you append a `)', vi shows
                            |   its match if it's on the same page; also with
                            |   `{' and `}'.  If there's no match at all, vi
                            |   will beep.
    taglength=<*>           | The number of significant characters in tags
                            |   (0 = unlimited).
    tags=<string>           | The space-separated list of tags files.
    terse                   | Short error messages.
    to                      | timeout - If this option is set, append mode
                            |   mappings will be interpreted only if they're
                            |   typed fast enough.
    ts=<*>                  | tabstop - The length of a <ht>; warning: this is
                            |   only IN the editor, outside of it <ht>s have
                            |   their normal length (default 8 positions).
    wa                      | writeany - No checks when writing (dangerous).
    warn                    | Warn you when you try to quit without writing.
    wi=<*>                  | window - The default number of lines vi shows.
    wm=<*>                  | wrapmargin - In append mode vi automatically
                            |   puts a <lf> whenever there is a <sp> or <ht>
                            |   within <wm> columns from the right margin
                            |   (0 = don't put a <lf> in the file, yet put it
                            |   on the screen).
    ws                      | wrapscan - When searching, the end is
                            |   considered `stuck' to the begin of the file.
    
    :set <option>           | Turn <option> on.
    :set no<option>         | Turn <option> off.
    :set <option>=<value>   | Set <option> to <value>.
    :set                    | Show all non-default options and their values.
    :set <option>?          | Show <option>'s value.
    :set all                | Show all options and their values.
    

    Reserved IP addresses


    TCP/IP addresses reserved for 'private' networks are:
     
    10.0.0.0       to     10.255.255.255
    172.16.0.0     to     172.31.255.255
    192.168.0.0    to     192.168.255.255

     

    These are invalid addresses on the internet. Routers don't route them.

    FTP with a username and password: ftp://user:pass@ftp.whatever.com/

    The usual URL format for doing an anonymous ftp from Netscape Navigator is this:

    ftp://ftp.whatever.com/

    If you need to do a non-anonymous ftp (in other words, if you want to ftp into a specific account on the ftp server), then here is the proper URL to use with Netscape Navigator:

    ftp://username@ftp.whatever.com/

    You will then be prompted for your ftp password.

    Alternately, you can put the password directly into the URL:

    ftp://username:password@ftp.whatever.com/


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